muscles, including resilience, damage tolerance, and large actuation strains Recently, effective electroactive polymers (EAP) were developed that induce. Electroactive polymer (EAP) actuators are electrically responsive materials Thus, they are being studied as ‘artificial muscles’ for a variety of. actuators. The main attractive characteristic of. Electroactive polymers. (EAP) is their operational similarity to biological muscles, particularly their resilience.

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Pollack and co-workers from University of Electroactivs and Robert J. The efforts currently underway to model their nonlinear electromechanical behavior and develop novel experimental techniques to measure and characterize EAP material properties are discussed in Chapter 6. Making a floating robot fish may not be an exciting event, but this is the first commercial product to use an EAP actuator.

The editor himself writes both. SRI International is the prime developer of the DEA technology and they report on the immense number of application they have developed.

Light, flexible, noiseless actuators with stroke, force and efficiency similar to or better than that of human muscles are promises of polymer actuators.

Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles: are they ready for bioinspired applications?

Natural muscles Two chapters by Gerald H. This chapter is an excellent reference for the progress within DEA. Also, not all areas of polymer ewp are given equal attention.

Sign In View Cart 0 Help. Full, Kenneth Meijer from University of California at Berkeley gives an indispensable background on the structure and functionality of natural muscles. Polymers are a promising alternative to materials commonly used for actuators, such as piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys, magnetostrictive materials, and electrorheological fluids.

Virtually every known method of generating displacement is introduced. This match may occur in the coming years, and the success of a robot against a human pllymer will lead to a new musscles in both making realistic biomimetic robots and implementing engineering designs that are currently considered science fiction.

Since biological muscles are used as a model for the development of EAP actuators, Chapter 2 describes the mechanism of muscles operation and their behavior as actuators. In concept and execution, this book covers the field of EAP with careful attention to all its key aspects and full infrastructure, including the available materials, analytical models, polymeer techniques, and characterization methods.

Ewp is shown that dlectroactive dielectric elastomer actuator DEA behaves reasonably muscle like simply because it is soft and viscoelastic. I simply miss an additional chapter by — take an example — a leading Japanese research group. IPMC actuators are also covered in a later chapter, but the book would certainly have been strengthened by a contribution from the group, who have been leading in the practical development of IPMC actuators: This is one single chapter, but it is with good reasons that the editors choose to ae it in a separate subtopic.


The reader is guided through the wider area of smart structures and materials. Some chapters in the last part of the book deal with topics not special to polymer actuators — or no developments within polymer actuators have taken place within these areas. Ion-exchange membranes with chemically plated metal electrodes — ionomeric polymer metal composites IPMC — form one of the most studied polymer actuator systems.

Potential beneficiaries of EAP eletroactive include commercial, medical, space, and military that can impact our life greatly. Experts in chemistry, materials science, electro-mechanics, robotics, computer science, electronics, and others are working together to develop improved EAP materials, processing techniques, and applications.

Carbon nanotube is an exciting new material for many reasons, and it may also be used as actuator material.

This book gives a thorough introduction as well as in-depth descriptions of the many aspects of polymers as actuators. A number of excellent reviews are collected in the book, but a weakness is that the book tries to cover too much and become somewhat lengthy.

The editor would like to thank everyone who contributed to his efforts, both as part of his team advancing the technology as well as those who helped with the preparation of this book.

Sean Leary, Mark Schulman, Dr. The similarity includes resilient, damage tolerant, and large actuation strains stretching, contracting, or bending. Advances reported in this second edition include an improved understanding of these materials’ behavior, better analytical modeling, as well as more effective characterization, processing, and fabrication techniques.

Modeling the behavior of EAP materials requires the use of complex analytical tools, which is one of the major challenges to the design and control of related mechanisms and devices.

This chapter also serve as an excellent introduction to the area. Stewart Sherrit for their help.

They introduce the important concept of characterising a cyclic working actuator using the work loop technique. On the positive side, there has already been a series of reported successes in demonstrating miniature manipulation devices, including a catheter steering element, robotic arm, gripper, loudspeaker, active diaphragm, dust-wiper, and many others.

Fabrication methods obviously depend strongly on the system at hand, as well as do test methods. The editor Yoseph Bar-Cohen from Jet Propulsion Laboratories is a central person in the field of polymer actuators and he has collected contributions from a number of the leading scientist in the field.


Thomas give an excellent introduction as well as a detailed insight into the structure, mechanism and models for both materials and actuators.

The chapter by professor Full gives a wealth of important information on the performance of the muscle in working conditions. The sa also briefly reviews some of the known molecular and supramolecular systems, where the activation is light or chemically driven — photochromic systems, guest-host systems etc.

The team members included Dr. The last chapter by Christopher H. Therefore, it is natural to consider EAP materials for applications that require actuators to drive biologically inspired mechanisms of manipulation, and mobility. Such applications are anticipated to promote EAP materials to become actuators of choice in spite of the technology challenges and limitations they present.

Electroactive polymer actuators as artificial muscles: are they ready for bioinspired applications?

The change in this view occurred in the early s, as a result of the development of new EAP materials that exhibit a large displacement in response to electrical stimulation. The models accurately simulate experimental behaviour. The advances were not only marked with the first commercial product; there has also been the announcement by the SRI International scientists juscles are confident they have reached the point that they can now meet the challenge posed by this book’s editor of poylmer a robot arm with artificial muscles that could win an arm wrestling match against a human.

The book is the first attempt to give a full review of the state-of-the-art within polymer actuators. This book is intended to serve as reference tool, a technology users’ guide, and a tutorial resource, and to create a vision for the field’s future direction.

Marsella from University of California at Riverside describe materials, where huge structural changes occur in a single molecule under activation. Modelling Electroactive polymers Modelling is of obvious importance — both for understanding fundamental properties and for predicting performance. Certainly, this is an interesting application and certainly electrorheological fluids are smart materials, but they are not really EAP materials. Thus, polymer-based EAP-actuated devices may be fully produced by an ink-jet printing process enabling the rapid implementation of science-fiction ideas e.